The South Indian superstar, who celebrated his 62nd birthday on December 12, made the request at a function organised in his honour in Chennai.
According to NDTV Movies, the actor said: "As someone who has enjoyed and 'experienced' it all, I tell you, please give up smoking and drinking.
"My health problem is due to my own fondness to tobacco and alcohol. There was a time I used to drink a lot. It's important to have a good friend, more than God and a good wife. Because of bad company, I got into drinking and as more money came in I tried all expensive drinks."
The legendary actor, who was often seen smoking on film, also recalled being hospitalised in 2006 with a kidney condition.
"Doctors told my family it would be a miracle if I survived," he added.
Rajinikanth's birthday celebrations are being marked by the release of the 3D version of his 2007 blockbuster Sivaji.
The actor is currently shooting his next film Kochadaiyaan, directed by daughter Soundarya R. Ashwin.
A biography of the actor, entitled Rajinikanth: The Definitive Biography was released on the occasion of his birthday.