The 12-issue, biweekly comic will be penned by the publisher's top writers Brian Michael Bendis, Jason Aaron, Ed Brubaker, Jonathan Hickman and Matt Fraction.
It will feature art from Frank Cho, John Romita Jr, Olivier Coipel and Adam Kubert.
The story will kick off in March with a #0 prologue written by Bendis and Aaron.
The event will focus around the Phoenix Force upon its return to Earth, and Hope Summers as its presumed host.
While the X-Men fight to protect one of their own, they come into conflict with the Avengers, who are determined to prevent the destruction of the world.
"You've got two populations whose motivations are simple and understandable and defensible," Axel Alonso, Marvel's editor-in-chief, told USA Today.
"That's part of the beauty of this. You're seeing a story that evolves out of 'What would you do?'"
The Scarlet Witch, who was responsible for the decimation of Earth's mutant population, will also play a key role in Avengers vs. X-Men.
The original page featuring the death of Phoenix recently sold at auction for $65,000 (£42,000).