The publisher revealed in the Marvel Mailer sent out by Diamond Comic Distributors that the title will not be released, reports kabooooom.com.
Writer Joe Keatinge and artist Rich Elson were in line to collaborate on the series, which was to explore the origins of the Mad Titan.
Thanos was recently the subject of a teaser for Avengers Assemble, in which he will feature alongside the newly revived Guardians of the Galaxy.
The villain has been in Marvel's spotlight since his cameo in Joss Whedon's Avengers movie.
There is some speculation that Thanos creator Jim Starlin may be gearing up for a lawsuit over compensation for the use of the character in the hit film.
Marvel did not offer any reasons why Thanos: Son of Titan - which was due to debut in September - will no longer be released.