Jeff Lemire will write and draw the series for the DC Comics imprint following the conclusion of his creator-owned title Sweet Tooth.
Slated to run for 10 issues, Trillium focuses on an unlikely romance between a botanist from the distant future and a war-scarred explorer based 92 years in the past.
"Sci-fi is something I've wanted to tackle for a while. I experimented a bit with it last year when I did the Ultra the Multi-Alien short story for Vertigo's Strange Adventures anthology and enjoyed that project so much that I was eager to do more," said Lemire.
"I've also always wanted to do a really powerful, human love story."
Vertigo also announced The Wake, a new series by Scott Snyder and Sean Murphy, at New York Comic Con. The series combined horror and science fiction, and was commissioned as part of the publisher's new focus on the latter genre.
Trillium will be released by Vertigo in 2013.