The High Ways will continue the partnership between the publisher and veteran creator in January.
The title centres around adventure-hungry Eddie Wallace, a man who enlists in the crew of an interplanetary rock-hopping freighter.
"This evolved into something a bit more like Dan Dare, the British sci-fi strip so beloved from my childhood and early teens," said Byrne.
"I liked the idea of playing in that 'old time sci-fi' kind of milieu, where all the adventures took place within the Solar System, and where life - even intelligent, humanoid life - was to be found everywhere.
"I decided this takes place in the Next Men universe - though in the altered timeline our heroes created when they wiped out Project Next Men. The time is 80 or 90 years in the future, roughly, and a central character of the first arc is Eddie Wallace, who appeared briefly in the previous series."
Byrne returned to his Next Men property at IDW in 2010.
The High Ways #1 will debut on January 16.