Metropolitan Police confirmed that the man had been arrested on suspicion of causing a public nuisance.
"The man had been heard to shout abuse and then throw a plastic bottle onto the track immediately prior to the start of the men's 100m final," a Metropolitan police spokesman said.
"He remains in custody at an East London police station. No-one was injured during the incident and the event was not interfered with in any way."
Bosch, who won a bronze medal last week, wrote on Twitter that she had hit a drunk man after he threw the bottle.
She also added that the incident caused her to miss the race, exclaiming in Dutch: "What a BEEP! # grrrrrrr."
According to The Guardian, Bosch later told NOS TV: "I had seen the man walking around earlier and said to people around me that he was a peculiar bloke.
"Then he threw that bottle and in my emotion I hit him on the back with the flat of my hand. Then he was scooped up by the security.
"However, he did make me miss the final, and I am very sad about that. I just cannot understand how someone can do something like that."
The race was won by Usain Bolt in a new Olympic Record time of 9.63 seconds.
Bronze medallist Justin Gatlin said of the bottle-throwing: "It was a little distraction and I didn't know what it was. But when you're in those blocks and the whole stadium's quiet you can hear a pin drop."
London 2012 Olympics - photo gallery: