The comic book artist is best known for his work on Uncanny X-Men and the Age of Apocalypse storyline.
In 2005 he co-founded Vigil Games and was creative director for both 2010's Darksiders and Darksiders 2 which released earlier this year.
"I'm afraid the time has come for me to move on to new adventures," Madureira said on Facebook. "I could not be more proud of what we achieved, or the awesome people who helped build up this studio. I can safely say Vigil's future is in very good hands, so expect only awesomeness down the road."
Battle Chasers creator Madureira added that he will announce "the next big thing" in the coming months, but in the meantime he is returning to comic book illustrating.
Darksiders 2 launched earlier this year on Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and PC. A Wii U version will also be available when the system launches, and will include all DLC from the other versions, along with unique controls to take advantage of the Wii U Gamepad's touchscreen and gyro features.
> Read Digital Spy's Darksiders 2 review
Watch the Darksiders 2 trailer below: