Aired on BBC Two, three-episode mini-series Welcome To Lagos tracked people living in the poorest areas of the Nigerian city to celebrate their industriousness.
Speaking to The Guardian, Nobel Laureate Soyinka said that the documentary was "the most tendentious and lopsided programme" he had ever seen.
Despite the series receiving critical praise in the UK, Soyinka said that it demonstrated "the worst aspects of colonialist and patronising" attitudes towards modern life in Africa.
Soyinka, who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1986, said: "There was no sense of Lagos as what it is - a modern African state. What we had was jaundiced and extremely patronising. It was saying 'Oh, look at these people who can make a living from the pit of degradation'.
"There was this colonialist idea of the noble savage which motivated the programme. It was patronising and condescending. It surprised me because it came from the BBC which is supposed to have some sort of reputation. It was not worthy of the BBC."
The 75-year-old writer, who splits his time between a base in the US and a home outside Lagos, said that it is "deeply frustrating" to see such a "negative and reductionist overview" of the city.
"What I saw I found very unjust and sensationalist. What I saw was not an honest reportage. The problem is the title - it programmes the mind of the viewer in advance and sets the overall context," he said.
"One could do a similar programme about London in which you go to a poor council estate and speak of poverty and knifings. Or you could follow a hobo selling iron on the streets of London. But you wouldn't call it, Welcome to London, because that would give the viewer the impression that that is all London is about."
Despite not directly responding to Soyinka's comments, a BBC spokeswoman defended the documentary as a valid portrayal of modern day Lagos.
"Welcome To Lagos explores the impact of the massive rate of global urbanisation in one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world," she said.
"Its aim was to give a voice to those living at the sharp end of this ever-expanding population, and highlight the resourcefulness, determination and creativity of those adapting to life in this most extreme of urban environments.
"The series has generated a broad range of comment, but it has been well received by both viewers and media commentators, many of whom have specifically highlighted the positive and un-stereotypical portrayals within the film."