The five-year deal, which started on May 14 for an event in Doha, Qatar, will include full coverage from July's British Grand Prix and the London Grand Prix in August.
The UK events will be aired on BBC One and BBC Two, while track meetings at Paris and Stockholm will be made available on BBC Three, along with the series finals in Zurich and Brussels.
All remaining events on the circuit will be aired via the Red Button, with the BBC website also offering live and on-demand highlights but only for UK users.
"It's great to be able to add the IAAF Diamond League to our athletics portfolio and it's very exciting to be broadcasting on BBC Three to a young and diverse audience," said BBC athletics editor Carl Hicks.
"2010 looks set to be a great year for British athletics with the European Championships and Commonwealth Games taking place.
"This deal reinforces the BBC's commitment to athletics, and the sport's increasing profile as we build up to London 2012 where it will be a key focal point."
The Diamond League was created by world governing body the IAAF to bring new attention and revenues to international athletics. Total prize money for the 14 meetings will exceed $6.63m (£4.47m).
Olympic and world champion sprinter Usain Bolt is due to appear at seven events on the circuit, starting with Shanghai, China this weekend.