The station, which was recently told by the BBC Trust to commission more comedy and arts programming, intends to "shine a light on cultural landmarks, comedy greats and screen legends".
The documentary series will begin this evening at 10pm, with actor Michael Sheen presenting Hello, Good Evening, Welcome - The David Frost Story.
Sheen, who recently portrayed the talkshow legend in Frost/Nixon, will interview Frost about his impact on popular culture in Britain and America during the 1960s.
Later in the year, Sheen will also present a programme on the journey of actor Richard Burton from the Welsh town of Port Talbot to the Hollywood high life.
On June 15 at 10pm, Steven Van Zandt, guitarist with Bruce Springsteen's E Street Band, will present Ain't Gonna Play Sun City as part of Radio 2's World Cup series.
Van Zandt, who also appeared in The Sopranos, will look at the role played by musicians in the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa.
Sing When You're Winning will air on June 16 at 10pm, with a range of contributors, including New Order's Peter Hook and footballer Lee Dixon, discussing the popular chants in British football.
Spandau Ballet star Gary Kemp will tell the story of glam rock on June 29 at 10pm in The Glory Of Glam, with contributions coming from David Bowie, Bryan Ferry and Noddy Holder.
"Radio 2 is one of the BBC's pillars of public service broadcasting, and I am immensely proud of our distinctive documentary output this year - which offers a rich and diverse menu across the cultural and creative spectrum," said Radio 2 controller Bob Shennan.
"All of our documentaries will be highlighted within our daytime schedule, guaranteeing further exposure of these programmes to millions of listeners across the network."
Other highlights in the year-long series include former BBC director general Michael Grade exploring the story of the London Palladium, Brassed Off star Stephen Tompkinson investigating brass bands in Britain and Paul O'Grady discussing the history of cabaret.