The actress will join Paul Giamatti, Alec Baldwin, Russell Brand, Tom Cruise and Mary J Blige in the forthcoming film version of the Broadway stage musical.
Director Adam Shankman confirmed the casting on Twitter on Wednesday.
"Yea, it's true! My darling Catherine zeta jones (sic) is joining the #rockofagesmovie cast as my new villain! I'm super busy, so read about it online," Shankman tweeted.
Shankman said that Zeta-Jones's villain role was specifically created for the movie and was not in the stage production, according to The Hollywood Reporter.
"It's a character that we only really came to in the last month. The character was invented to streamline the stories," Shankman explained.
The director described the character as the love child of Tipper Gore and Anita Bryant.
"She is this hardcore, moral majority, arch-conservative who wants to shut down rock 'n' roll in the great city of Los Angeles," the filmmaker added.
Shankman said that the production was "blessed" to have Zeta-Jones join the cast.
Rock of Ages is billed as a love story told through 1980s metal anthems by Bon Jovi, Journey and Poison, among others.
Zeta-Jones recently expressed hope that her struggle with bipolar II disorder will inspire other sufferers to seek treatment.