The Justified star is to play the progressive democrat and abolitionist Wells A Hutchins, according to Deadline.
Goggins will be joining Daniel Day-Lewis as Abraham Lincoln and Sally Field as the president's wife Mary Todd. David Strathairn, Tommy Lee Jones, Joseph Gordon-Levitt, John Hawkes, Hal Holbrook, Bruce McGill, Tim Nelson and James Spader are also signed up.
Lincoln is based on Doris Kearns Goodwin's bestselling book Team of Rivals, which explores the rivalries within Lincoln's cabinet ahead of the Civil War.
Goggins most recently appeared in Predators and is to play a key role in genre mashup Cowboys and Aliens.
Spielberg has two directorial works coming out before Lincoln arrives in cinemas. War Horse and The Adventures of Tintin: Secret of the Unicorn are scheduled for release in December 2011.
Watch the trailer for The Adventures of Tintin: Secret of the Unicorn below: