The Pandorum actor will be joining cast members Jennifer Lopez, Chace Crawford, Matthew Morrison and Cameron Diaz.
What to Expect When You're Expecting centres on four couples and friends who are expecting children.
Quaid will play an older father who is expecting a set of twins and finds himself in competition with his adult son, who is waiting for his wife to give birth to their first child.
Director Kirk Jones's script is an adaptation of a real best-selling pregnancy guide written by journalist Heidi Murkoff.
Quaid is also reportedly attached to a new independent film from Man Push Cart director Ramin Bahrani.
He will also be seen in the planned remake of the classic 1980s film Footloose, taking on the role of the uptight Reverend Shaw Moore.
Watch Dennis Quaid in the trailer for Pandorum below: