A Prophet's Jacques Audiard is directing the adaptation of Craig Davidson's short story collection, Variety reports.
The book centres on the lives of down-and-outs involved in dog-fighting, gambling and boxing, with the title story about a fighter who is forced to have illegal matches.
Cotillard will be joining confirmed cast members Bouli Lanners, Matthias Schoenarts and Celine Sallette for the production.
Cotillard is currently working on The Dark Knight Rises with Christian Bale.
The actress will next be seen in Steven Soderbergh's ensemble drama Contagion, alongside Gwyneth Paltrow, Matt Damon, Laurence Fishburne and John Hawkes.
Contagion follows the development of a highly contagious disease across four cities in the world and the intertwining stories of those affected.
Watch the trailer for Contagion below: