Robopocalypse follows the battle between humans and robots after a scientist accidentally triggers a virus that gives robots a sentient artificial intelligence named Archos.
Spielberg will direct from a script based on science fiction writer Daniel H Wilson's novel of the same title.
The director said: "I am so pleased that (20th Century Fox joint-CEOs) Tom Rothman and Jim Gianopulos see the same exciting opportunities in Robopocalypse that we originally saw when we bought the rights to the book.
"We had a successful relationship with them and Fox when we made Minority Report and we hope we can deliver another film that will give today's global audiences something thrilling."
DreamWorks co-president Mark Sourian last year described Spielberg as the dream director for the movie adaptation of the-then unpublished book.
Spielberg's projects War Horse and The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn will be released in December.
Ubisoft recently told Digital Spy that the Adventures of Tintin makers, Spielberg and Peter Jackson, were "avid gamers" and oversaw the development of the tie-in video game.
Watch the trailer for War Horse below: