The movie's director Michel Hazanavicius was also honoured with the 'Best Director' prize at Thursday evening's (January 12) ceremony, which was held at the Hollywood Palladium.
Other major winners honoured by the members of the Broadcast Critics' Association included George Clooney, who was named 'Best Actor' for his role in The Descendants.
Viola Davis took home the award for 'Best Actress' for The Help, while her co-star Octavia Spencer was named 'Best Supporting Actress' and the movie's cast was rewarded with the 'Best Acting Ensemble' prize.
Christopher Plummer triumphed in the 'Best Supporting Actor' category for Beginners.
Woody Allen won the 'Best Original Screenplay' award for Midnight in Paris, while Moneyball triumphed in the 'Best Adapted Screenplay' category.
Hazanavicius was recently forced to defend The Artist after Kim Novak complained that the movie's use of Vertigo's 'Love Theme' "raped" her body of work.
He explained that he paid for and was granted permission to use the music in The Artist, arguing that what he had done was "not illegal".
The Artist was recently tipped for Oscars success by film critic Mark Kermode.
The Critics' Choice Movie Awards 2012 winners in full:
Best Picture: The Artist
Best Actor: George Clooney (The Descendants)
Best Actress: Viola Davis (The Help)
Best Supporting Actor: Christopher Plummer (Beginners)
Best Supporting Actress: Octavia Spencer (The Help)
Best Acting Ensemble: The Help
Best Director: Michel Hazanavicius (The Artist)
Best Comedy: Bridesmaids
Best Animated Film: Rango
Best Foreign Film: A Separation
Best Young Actor Or Actress: Thomas Horn (Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close)
Best Documentary Feature: George Harrison: Living in the Material World
Best Adapted Screenplay: Moneyball
Best Original Screenplay: Midnight in Paris
Honorary 'Music + Film' Award: Martin Scorsese