The Passion of the Christ actor will join the action movie legends in the Mikael Håfström-directed film.
The movie stars Stallone as a prison expert who is trapped in a jail of his own design.
Schwarzenegger will play a shades-of-grey inmate who rallies the other prisoners, while Caviezel will appear as the prison warden.
Originally due to star in the film, Schwarzenegger pulled out and later returned to the project in the supporting role.
Caviezel is also known for his roles on Person of Interest and the Prisoner remake.
The Tomb is planned to shoot in Louisiana in the spring.
Watch Sylvester Stallone and Arnold Schwarzenegger team up in The Expendables 2 trailer below: