The X-Men actor will star as Jean Valjean in the upcoming Hollywood adaptation of the long-running musical directed by Tom Hooper.
He uploaded the photo of himself sporting a long beard and shaved head on Twitter, saying: "Very excited about how the first days of filming are going!! Check out my convict look...but its changing soon (sic)."
Jackman is currently filming the project in Portsmouth, England, along with Russell Crowe, who will play Jean Valjean's arch enemy Inspector Javert.
Russell Crowe tweeted: "Yesterday, 18 km bike ride, 90 min walk. Today in the rain and wind on a perfectly sunny day in Portsmouth."
Other castmembers for the musical include Eddie Redmayne, Amanda Seyfried, Anne Hathaway, Helena Bonham Carter and Sacha Baron Cohen.
Samantha Barks recently replaced Taylor Swift in the film as Eponine.
Les Miserables will be released to cinemas on December 14.
> Hugh Jackman: 'I auditioned hard for Les Miserables'