The Dark City director will helm the adaptation of Robert A Heinlein's 1942 novella.
The film centres around the titular character, who comes to the realisation that he does not know what he does every day when he goes to work.
He hires two detectives to track his movements, but they are in turn warned by a shadowy group that their investigations will have terrible consequences.
Proyas is said to be a long-time fan of the book, which directly influenced his work on Dark City.
He has also directed sci-fi adaptation I, Robot, classic comic book movie The Crow and the 2009 Nicolas Cage-starring Knowing, and was to direct the now shelved Paradise Lost film.
Red Granite Pictures, Mythology Entertainment, Phoenix Pictures and Mystery Clock Cinema are collaborating on The Unpleasant Profession of Jonathan Hoag.