Scott Frank (The Lookout) will direct the thriller from his own script.
The movie will feature Neeson as former NYPD cop turned unlicensed private eye Matt Scudder, who stumbles upon an extensive conspiracy after he is hired to locate the kidnapped wife of a drug dealer.
At the same time, Matt must struggle with his own inner demons and alcoholism.
Frank wrote the script 14 years previously, and Harrison Ford was previously connected with the leading role.
Danny DeVito will produce through his company Jersey Films alongside Double Feature Films partners Michael Shamberg and Stacey Sher.
The film marks the first project in a three-year development and production deal between Exclusive Media and Cross Creek Pictures.
Neeson was last seen in Battleship and was announced to have signed on for the drama Third Person with Olivia Wilde earlier in the week.
A Walk Among the Tombstones will begin shooting in New York in February, 2013.