The Ridley Scott sci-fi movie - which features an ensemble cast including Guy Pearce, Michael Fassbender, Charlize Theron, Noomi Rapace and Idris Elba - displaced Men in Black 3 at the top of the standings, taking over $7 million in box office receipts.
It is one of two new entries in the top ten alongside Jennifer Westfeldt's comedy Friends with Kids. The Way also returns to the top ten, after sliding down to number 11 last week.
Prometheus also topped the UK box office charts on its first weekend, but was pipped in the US by Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted, which opened on around a thousand more screens than Prometheus.
Earlier this year, Scott was quoted as saying that he believed a lower certificate would boost box office receipts by enabling a wider audience to see the film.
Prometheus has been given an MA15+ rating in Australia on account of "strong science fiction violence".
The Australian box office top ten for the weekend of June 7 to June 10 in full (All takings shown in Australian dollars):
1. (-) Prometheus - $7,215,197
2. (1) Men in Black 3 - $2,155,470
3. (2) What to Expect When You're Expecting - $1,742,770
4. (3) The Avengers - $1,282,054
5. (4) The Dictator - $755,170
6. (-) Friends with Kids - $479,904
7. (5) Dark Shadows - $374,179
8. (11) The Way - $190,602
9. (9) The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel - $134,885
10. (10) Salmon Fishing in the Yemen - $114,322
Watch Digital Spy's video from the Prometheus world premiere below:
Photo gallery - Prometheus: