The former United States of Tara star joins Gordon-Levitt, Julianne Moore and Scarlett Johansson in the black comedy, currently in production.
Also written by Gordon-Levitt, the film tells the story of a modern-day Don Juan who sets out to become a better person after meeting a widowed older woman.
Variety reports that Larson will play Gordon-Levitt's younger sister, while Tony Danza is set to play the actor's father.
After filming Don Jon's Addiction, Larson will go on to shoot the upcoming teen comedy The Spectacular Now.
Don Jon's Addiction is expected for release in 2013.