The Magic Mike actor is the latest to sign up for the upcoming drama from director Martin Scorsese.
McConaughey will play Mark Hanna, the early mentor of Jordan Belfort (Leonardo DiCaprio) in the project.
Jonah Hill, Jean Dujardin, Rob Reiner, Kyle Chandler, Margot Robbie, Jon Bernthal, Cristin Milioti, P.J. Byrne and Ethan Suplee are also among the growing cast.
The Wolf of Wall Street tells the true story of a drug-addicted stockbroker who became a multimillionaire by the age of 26, before being jailed for security fraud and money laundering.
The project is set to begin filming in New York later this month.
Jon Favreau was the most recent cast member to join the drama.
Matthew McConaughey recently confirmed that The Lincoln Lawyer will receive a sequel.
Watch Matthew McConaughey and Channing Tatum discuss Magic Mike with Digital Spy below: