The new film, written by and starring Vaughn and Owen Wilson, tells the story of two middle-aged men who aim to launch their careers as interns at a start-up company.
According to Slate, the actors will be filming scenes for the movie this week at Google's Mountain View campus in California.
Actual employees of the company, including Android creator Hugo Barra, will appear as extras in the movie.
Rose Byrne and Love and Other Drugs actor Josh Gad will also star in the comedy.
The Internship is due for release in 2013.