The Mission Impossible star could line up alongside Charlize Theron in the movie, which has Rupert Wyatt lined up to direct, according to Variety.
Universal Pictures has appointed Agent 13 scribe TS Nowlin to provide a screenplay for Our Name Adam, but the studio is keeping plot details under wraps.
Cruise is no stranger to the sci-fi genre, having appeared in Minority Report and War of the Worlds, and having begun work on Joseph Kosinski's Oblivion.
The actor can next be seen on screen in Christopher McQuarrie's Jack Reacher, scheduled for release in December.
Our Name is Adam is yet to be assigned a release date.
Watch a trailer for Jack Reacher below: