Paramount Pictures has released a summary of the closely-guarded plot, which still hides much of the sequel's details.
"In Summer 2013, pioneering director JJ Abrams will deliver an explosive action thriller that takes Star Trek Into Darkness," said the studio.
"When the crew of the Enterprise is called back home, they find an unstoppable force of terror from within their own organisation has detonated the fleet and everything it stands for, leaving our world in a state of crisis.
Photo gallery - 'Star Trek' movies through the years:
"As our heroes are propelled into an epic chess game of life and death, love will be challenged, friendships will be torn apart, and sacrifices must be made for the only family Kirk has left: his crew."
Chris Pine, Zachary Quinto, Zoe Saldana, Karl Urban, Anton Yelchin and Simon Pegg will return for the sequel alongside newcomers Benedict Cumberbatch, Alice Eve and Peter Weller.
The first trailer will debut with The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, which is released on December 14.
Star Trek into Darkness will debut in cinemas on May 17, 2013.
Watch Chris Pine speaking to Digital Spy about his roles in the Star Trek and Jack Ryan movie series below: