Adele, Quentin Tarantino and Dame Maggie Smith were also among those who took home prizes from the 70th annual awards ceremony, hosted by Tina Fey and Amy Poehler.
> Golden Globes 2013: Movie winners
Argo won the award for 'Best Motion Picture (Drama)', while lead actor Ben Affleck was also honoured with the prize for 'Best Director'.
Affleck said in his acceptance speech that he felt humbled to have been recognised in a category with such a high calibre of nominees, comparing The Master director Paul Thomas Anderson to Orson Welles.
> Golden Globes as they happened - live blog
Les Misérables won three awards, including 'Best Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy)' and acting awards for Hugh Jackman and Anne Hathaway.
Jackman admitted in his speech that he came very close to dropping out of the movie following a disastrous rehearsal and credited his wife Deborra-Lee Furness for encouraging him to stay with the project.
> Golden Globes 2013: Tina Fey, Amy Poehler open the show - video
Adele - making her first public appearance since the birth of her baby son in October - said that she was not expecting to win the 'Best Original Song' award for 'Skyfall', and joked that she and her friend, also a new mother, had been "p*ssing ourselves laughing" at the fact they had been welcomed into Hollywood for the evening.
Daniel Day-Lewis and Jessica Chastain were also recognised with acting awards for Lincoln and Zero Dark Thirty respectively, while Quentin Tarantino expressed his surprise at winning the award for 'Best Motion Picture Screenplay' for Django Unchained.
> Golden Globes 2013: TV winners
In the TV categories, Homeland and Game Change led the way with three trophies apiece, while Girls took two awards home.
Damian Lewis and Claire Danes scooped acting awards for Homeland, which was also recognised with the award for 'Best Television Series (Drama)'.
Game Change, which enjoyed success at the Primetime Emmy Awards last September, won the award for 'Best Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television', while Julianne Moore and Ed Harris were also recognised for their performances in the HBO drama.
Girls's Lena Dunham took home the prizes for 'Best Television Series (Comedy or Musical)' and 'Best Actress in a Television Series 'Comedy or Musical'), and credited the show with making her feel "less alone".
Smith was recognised for her role in Downton Abbey, and there were also acting awards for Kevin Costner and Don Cheadle.
Jodie Foster gave an emotional speech accepting the Cecil B de Mille Award for lifetime achievement in which she hinted at a possible career change and thanked former partner Cydney Bernard, with whom she raises sons Charles and Christopher.
Foster also noted during her speech that she values "privacy above everything else", and said that she has never harboured desires to live her life like a reality TV star.
Former US president Bill Clinton also made a surprise appearance during the telecast to introduce footage from Lincoln, which was nominated in a total of seven categories.
Photo gallery - Golden Globes winners in pictures: