The Daniel Craig James Bond movie, which became the highest-grossing film ever at the UK box office following its release in October, was named 'Film of the Year'.
Toby Jones picked up 'Best Actor' for his role in Berberian Sound Studio, while Andrea Riseborough scooped 'Best Actress' for her work on Shadow Dancer.
Sacha Baron Cohen, whose recent films have included Les Misérables and The Dictator, was the recipient of this year's 'Editor's Award' "for making every film an event".
Ben Wheatley's Sightseers collected the 'Peter Sellers Award for Comedy', Malcolm Campbell was awarded 'Best Screenplay' for What Richard Did and My Brother the Devil writer-director Sally El Hosaini was recognised as the 'Most Promising Newcomer'.
[Toby Jones and Andrea Riseborough attend the awards]
Anna Karenina's Jacqueline Durran (costume design), Sarah Greenwood (production design) and Seamus McGarvey (cinematography) jointly won the 'London Film Museum Award For Technical Achievement' and Bart Layton's The Imposter was presented with the 'Best Documentary' prize.
The Standard's editor Sarah Sands said: "Thanks in part to the extraordinary success of Skyfall - a truly big British movie, delivered with a panache Hollywood could envy - 2012 also highlighted the creativity, vision and talent of a new generation of British film-makers, actors and actresses."
The ceremony was held at the London Film Museum on the South Bank on Monday night and was hosted by Episodes star Stephen Mangan.
Photo gallery - London Evening Standard British Film Awards arrivals: