The Titanic star will appear alongside Matthias Schoenaerts in the historical drama, which is currently in the works at Lionsgate.
Winslet and Schoenaerts will play rival garden designers competing for the right to design a fountain at Versailles for Louis XIV. Rickman will also star in the movie, reportedly as the 17th- and 18th-century monarch.
"We are delighted to be working with the best of British actors and directors like Kate Winslet and Alan Rickman as we move forward in doubling our investment in British films in 2014," said Lionsgate's Zygi Kamasa.
Rickman made his directorial debut in 1997 with The Winter Guest, an adaptation of Sharman Macdonald's play, starring Phyllida Law and Emma Thompson.
A Little Chaos will be released in cinemas next year.
Watch a trailer for The Winter Guest below: