Metronomy, James Blake and PJ Harvey have also received nods for the £20,000 prize, which is voted for by a panel of music industry leaders and experts.
Anna Calvi, Elbow, Gwilym Simcock, Everything Everything, Ghostpoet and King Creosote & Jon Hopkins make up the list.
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The nominees were announced by Lauren Laverne at The Hospital Club in London's Covent Garden earlier today.
Laverne described Adele's 21 as "remarkable", Metronomy's The English Riviera as "sparkling" and Katy B's debut On A Mission as "exhilarating".
Albums released between July 2010 and July 2011 are eligible for this year's prize, with the winner to be announced at an award ceremony on September 6 which will be broadcast live on BBC Two.
The xx won last year's prize with their debut album xx, which reached number three on the UK album chart.
The awards will celebrate their 19th year in September with previous recipients of the accolade including Dizzee Rascal, Ms. Dynamite and the Arctic Monkeys.
Adele's 21 recently regained its number one position on the UK album chart, spending its 17th non-consecutive week at the helm.
The nominees for the Barclaycard Mercury Prize 2011 are as follows:
- Anna Calvi: Anna Calvi
- Elbow: Build A Rocket Boys!
- James Blake: James Blake
- Katy B: On A Mission
- Metronomy: The English Riviera
- PJ Harvey: Let England Shake
- Gwilym Simcock: Good Days At Schloss Elmau
- Tinie Tempah: Disc-Overy
- Everything Everything: Man Alive
- Ghostpoet: Peanutbutter and Melancholy Blues
- King Creosote & Jon Hopkins: Diamond Mines
- Adele: 21
Who would you like to see walk away with the Barclaycard Mercury Prize 2011 in September? Leave your comments below.