The singer won 'Best Female' and 'Best Track' for 'Rolling in the Deep' at the London ceremony, which were collected by her producer Paul Epworth as she was unable to attend.
Elsewhere, readers voted U2 as the publication's 'Greatest Act of the Last 25 Years'. Frontman Bono said that the magazine had been crucial to the band's career, adding: "It's a truly great thing. They're so important for anyone that wants to take all their music all the way."
Other prizes went to Lana Del Rey, who picked up 'The Next Big Thing Award' after her debut single 'Video Games' became an online hit this year; Jessie J won 'Best Video' for 'Do It Like A Dude' and Tinie Tempah scooped 'Best Male'.
Siouxsie Sioux was awarded for her outstanding contribution to music, and Noel Gallagher was honoured with the 'Icon Award'. He said: "I've had a lot of awards over the years but this is the most recent."
The full winners list from this year's Q Awards and a gallery of the red carpet arrivals appear below:
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Best New Act presented by Orange Amplification
Q Best Female Artist
Q Best Male Artist
Adele 'Rolling In The Deep'
Bon Iver: Bon Iver
Best Live Act
Jessie J 'Do It Like A Dude'
Best Act In The World Today
Next Big Thing
Lana Del Rey
Greatest Act Of The Last 25 Years presented by BlackBerry
Q Inspiration Award
Outstanding Contribution to Music
Q Icon Award