The 'Rolling in the Deep singer' won every award that she received a nomination for, including 'Record of the Year', 'Song of the Year' and 'Album of the Year'.
On receiving the accolade for 'Album of the Year' at the end of the evening, Adele burst into tears before taking her trophy.
"Oh my god. Thank you so much," she sobbed.
"Mum, I love you, I'm so sorry you're not here," Adele continued.
The 23-year-old, who thanked her doctors for saving her voice earlier in the show, went on to say that her album was something that everyone could relate to.
"This record is inspired by something that's really normal and everyone's been through it," she said. "It's just a rubbish relationship."
The singer then noticed that she was crying on herself, declaring: "Oh, I got a bit of snot," to laughter from the crowd.
She concluded by thanking the audience.
Earlier in the evening, Adele performed 'Rolling in the Deep' in one of her first appearances following surgery on her vocal chords late last year.
She received a standing ovation from the audience at the Staples Centre.
More from the 54th Grammy Awards:
> Grammy Awards 2012: Nicki Minaj 'exorcised' in performance
> Grammys 2012: Carrie Underwood, Tony Bennett sing 'It Had Be You'
> Jennifer Hudson's Whitney Houston tribute at Grammy Awards: Watch
> Maroon 5, Foster the People join Beach Boys at 2012 Grammy Awards
> Grammy Awards 2012: The major winners