The blues-rock duo have alleged that Pizza Hut used "significant portions" of 'Gold on the Ceiling' in an advert for Cheesy Bites Pizza, and that The Home Depot used the track 'Lonely Boy' in a power tools advert.
NME reports that frontman Dan Auerbach and drummer Patrick Carney submitted the initial proceedings, alongside producer Brian Burton, better known by his alter ego Danger Mouse.
Lawyers for the band called the use of the songs "a brazen and improper effort to capitalise on [the] plaintiffs' hard-earned success".
The band have apparently claimed that they sent cease-and-desist letters regarding the use of the music to both companies in May, but that they were ignored.
The Black Keys will be playing the Reading and Leeds festivals on August 24 to 26.
Watch the video for The Black Keys song 'Gold on the Ceiling' below: