The cover will contain a colourful photograph of a human brain, taken from The Human Connectome Project.
The image shows the brain's pathways and how it processes information, with bright neon colours.
The 2nd Law will be released on September 17, to be followed by an arena tour of the UK in October.
Matt Bellamy recently revealed that he has sampled his baby son's heartbeat in an album track.
Watch the music video for Muse's new single 'Survival' below: