The boyband took home three prizes at the annual event, triumphing in the 'Best British Music Act', 'Best British Single' ('One Thing') and 'Best British Album' (Up All Night) categories.
Nick Grimshaw hosted the ceremony with fellow Radio 1 DJ Gemma Cairney at London's Wembley Arena earlier today (October 7).
An audience of 9,000 teenagers aged between 14-17 attended the event, which saw performances from One Direction, Taylor Swift, Little Mix, Conor Maynard, Ne-Yo and Fun.
Swimmer Ellie Simmonds won the 'Inspirational Hero of 2012' award for her four medals at the Paralympic Games.
Diver Tom Daley won two awards, including 'Male Hottie of the Year'. He also retained his 'Best British Sports Star' prize.
The X Factor was named the 'Best British TV Show', with judge Tulisa Contostavlos accepting the award.
Harry Potter star Daniel Radcliffe won 'Best British Actor', with co-star Emma Watson winning 'Female Hottie of the Year'.
The awards also honoured three 'Teen Heroes' who were nominated by BBC Radio 1 listeners and chosen by a panel of celebrities, which included Professor Green, Louis Smith, Jessie Ware, Radio 1 DJs, journalists and youth organisation experts.
Jenna, 17, from Scotland was awarded for setting up a retreat for young cancer sufferers with her twin brother, who later passed away from a brain tumour. Chelsea, 14, was honoured for her volunteer work in Bradford, while 13-year-old George, from York, was recognised for helping raise money for hospitals after being diagnosed with cancer at the age of 9.
Ben Cooper, controller BBC Radio 1 and BBC Radio 1Xtra, said: "Radio 1's Teen Awards are all about celebrating the positive contribution that teenagers make to this country. This year's winners Jenna, Chelsea and George have done just that - helping their communities and providing inspiration for all of us."
Highlights of the ceremony will be shown on Monday, October 8 at 8pm on BBC Three.
In pictures - the BBC Radio 1 Teen Awards 2012:
Copyright: Ian West/PA Wire