The track - co-written by Paul Epworth - was handed the honour at the event in London, which was hosted by Broadcast Music Inc.
The song was awarded the prize after becoming the most-played track on US TV and radio in 2011, accumulating 1.35 million airplays, reports BBC News.
Since its release in January 2011, 'Rolling in the Deep' has notched up 2m airplays in total, which is the equivalent of it being heard back-to-back for more than 12 years.
Adele was also handed two other awards for her hits 'Someone Like You' and 'Set Fire to the Rain', which were among the most-played pop songs last year.
Coldplay and Tinie Tempah were some of the other British stars to be honoured for achieving US airplay success.
Adele recently unveiled her new track 'Skyfall', which serves as the official theme for the latest James Bond instalment of the same name.
Watch the music video for Adele's 'Rolling in the Deep' below: