The cleaner stole the empty commuter train from a depot before driving into a suburb of Stockholm.
However, it later derailed and crashed into a block of flats, Swedish officials have said.
The woman was flown to a Stockholm hospital following the crash, with nobody else suffering injuries. She was also arrested on suspicion of endangering the public.
Train operator Arriva spokesman Tomas Hedenius said that the woman drove it for around a mile (1.6km) to the end station, before it came off the tracks.
The train continued to travel for around 25 metres before crashing into the three-storey building.
"There were three families inside the apartment building, but no-one was injured. At least not physically," Hedenius said.
It is currently not known what drove the woman to steal the train. She worked for the company that undertakes cleaning operations for the train operator.
"We have only heard good things about her. We're investigating how this could happen, and why she did what she did," Hedenius added.
Hedenius explained that it is also unclear how she managed to get keys to the train, but that driving one of the trains is not too difficult.
"Generally speaking that's possible even if you're not a train driver," he said. "You can read about it on the internet, or observe how others do it."