The Kill Bill actress was participating in the protest in Washington DC against the pipeline that would stretch from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico.
She initially refused to move, but was later handcuffed and taken away, a police spokesperson told The Wrap.
Hannah was released from custody after paying a $100 (£61) fine.
Before her arrest, Hannah had warned President Barack Obama that he could be voted out of office if he does not abandon the plans.
"He needs to just make the right decision," she said. "If he doesn't make that right decision, I'm sure we will see huge effects in the next election."
Hannah was previously arrested in 2006 after protesting against plans to bulldoze farms in Los Angeles, and in 2009 for protesting West Virginia mountaintop removal work.
Hannah will play porn star Cassie Wright in an upcoming adaptation of Chuck Palahniuk's novel Snuff.