The Girls Aloud star arrived at Camp Bastion in Helmand Province last night, where she will film a special tribute for The Mirror's Pride of Britain Awards.
The singer said she was "delighted" to be making the trip, which will be shown on TV next month.
"Cheryl's amazed by the courage of all those serving our country. When she was invited to go out to see them in Afghanistan, she immediately said 'yes'," a source told The Mirror. "She thinks it's such a great cause and they deserve all the recognition they get."
On board a 12-hour military flight yesterday, the former X Factor judge was given her own body armour and protective helmet which she wore as the plane entered Afghan airspace.
Excited soldiers also praised Cole for supporting the troops, with one telling the paper: "I couldn't believe it was Cheryl joining us. It's great she's made the effort to come all the way out here. Not only does she look amazing but it's a pretty big gesture. It's cheered everyone up."
Cole is due to speak with members of the Brigade Reconnaissance Force today, while she is also scheduled to spend time with some of the military dogs who aid the forces.
During her appearance at the Pride of Britain Awards last year, Cole was hit in the face with a custard pie by 12-year-old 'Young Fundraiser of the Year' winner Cameron Small.
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Watch Cheryl Cole get hit with a custard pie at the 2010 Pride of Britain Awards below: