The autobiography, which is called My Mother Was Nuts, will include tales of Marshall's marriage to former husband Rob Reiner and her battle with brain cancer.
Marshall said that she hopes the book will shed light on how she went from growing up in New York City to being one of Hollywood's most successful filmmakers.
Marshall gained fame first as an actress in the television series The Odd Couple and Laverne & Shirley, before going on to direct the hit films Awakenings and A League of Their Own.
"People have always asked me how I got from the Bronx to Hollywood, so I thought it was time to tell how it all happened," she told The AP.
"I have had many lives - not in the Shirley MacLaine sense - and you will hear about them all. Just don't expect any recipes. I don't cook."
Amazon will release My Mother Was Nuts as a hardcover and an e-book in the fall of 2012.
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Watch Penny Marshall and friend Rosie O'Donnell's famous K-Mart 'Price Police' advertisement below: