Choosing icons who have inspired his long and acclaimed creative career, Blake took inspiration for the new piece from his cover for The Beatles' Grammy Award-winning album.
Among those featured are Amy Winehouse, JK Rowling, Richard Curtis, Noel Gallagher, Elton John, Helen Mirren, John Peel, Mick Jagger, Vivienne Westwood and David Attenborough. Paul McCartney is the only Beatle to feature, and is joined by daughters Stella and Mary.
"I've chosen people I admire, great people and some who are dear friends," Blake said. "I had a very long list of people who I wanted to go in but couldn't fit everyone in - I think that shows how strong British culture and its legacy of the last six decades is."
Speaking of her inclusion, Harry Potter author Rowling said: "Given that I've devoted quite a lot of time to gazing at the original Sgt Pepper album cover, you can perhaps imagine what it means to me to be featured. What an honour."
Oasis star Gallagher commented: "When they told me I had been chosen I was obviously very chuffed. It's nice to be recognised by as great an artist as Sir Peter Blake. To be on there with the likes of Vivienne Westwood, Mick Jagger and Paul Weller, just those three people alone, is amazing for me as I wouldn't put myself up with any of those."
Blake's birthday will be celebrated at Wayne Hemingway MBE's Vintage Festival on July 15, with an exhibition of his work on display, along with a dedicated Sunday night headliner show featuring special guests.