Garrison was arrested at his Beverly Hills apartment last weekend, following a call to police reportedly made by his ex-girlfriend Ashley Mattingly.
He has now been formally charged with misdemeanour domestic violence, TMZ reports.
The charges were filed based on footage from a surveillance video, which appeared to show Garrison slapping Mattingly in the face. His lawyers state that he was reaching for his phone, rather than raising his hand with violent intent.
Garrison played David "Tweener" Apolskis in the first two seasons of Fox drama Prison Break.
He was sentenced to 40 months in jail for vehicular manslaughter and DUI in 2007, following a car accident in which a teenager was killed.
Garrison settled two lawsuits relating to the crash and ultimately served less than two years.
If convicted of domestic violence, he faces a year in jail.