The QPR midfielder was involved in an altercation outside the Garlands club in the city centre early Monday morning (June 4).
A spokesman for Merseyside Police confirmed that Barton was one of four men that were arrested in the wake of the incident, according to Reuters.
"Following an altercation in Eberle Street, Liverpool city centre, in the early hours of this morning, four men have been arrested on suspicion of affray," a police statement said on Monday.
"Two 21-year-old men were arrested at the scene in the early hours of this morning and another two men, a 20-year-old from the Liverpool area and a 29-year-old from the Widnes area, were arrested this afternoon."
The four individuals were later released on bail.
This is not the first time Barton has been arrested. He spent 77 days in jail in 2008 after he was found guilty of common assault and affray after an incident in December 2007.