The Prime Minister caused controversy by criticising Carr when it was revealed that he had been avoiding tax by paying £3.3m a year into offshore shelter.
According to the Daily Mail, despite issuing a full, unqualified apology earlier in the week, the 39-year-old is furious at being singled out by Cameron after the PM had previously refused to criticise Tory donor Gary Barlow for entering into a similar scheme.
At a stand-up gig in Stockport on Friday, Carr said of Cameron: "He's a very bad man. What have I ever said about him? Literally f**king thousands of things."
He also derided Cameron for taking time out from high-level international politics to comment on his private affairs, saying: "You know you're a d**k when the Prime Minister breaks off from the G20 summit.
'He's having a meeting with Obama, [and] says, 'Excuse me, Obama, there's something I need to deal with, Jimmy Carr's a f**king d**k'."
The comments were well-received by the crowd, but the star of The 10 O'Clock Show still received a number of good-natured heckles throughout the show, which he said he said he was "expecting" and were "fairly valid".
When Carr asked an audience member why he was 20 minutes late, he replied, "Sorry, I've been doing my tax returns", which was met with applause from both Carr and the crowd.
The comedian was also roundly mocked by panellists on 8 out of 10 Cats on Friday, which led to a boost in ratings for the game show.
Watch Jimmy Carr on Friday's 8 out of 10 Cats below: