Following his turn as William Shakespeare in Being Shakespeare at Trafalgar Studios, Callow treads the boards as Dickens to cover 49 of the writer's characters, from Scrooge and Oliver Twist's Nancy to Miss Havisham and Tiny Tim.
The play runs at the Playhouse Theatre for a limited season from September 13 to November 3.
Tickets are on sale now and are priced from £15 to £55. Showings are Monday to Saturday at 7.30pm with a Wednesday and Saturday matinee at 2.30pm.
The Mystery of Charles Dickens will be directed by Richard Twyman. The original production was directed by Patrick Garland.
Callow last appeared in the play at The Albery in 2002 and played Dickens in the 2005 Doctor Who episode 'The Unquiet Dead'.