The Oscar winner will receive a salute at Harvard on January 31 with a parade in her honour, the Hasty Pudding organisation has announced.
Cotillard will also be the subject of a comedy roast, where she will be given Harvard's infamous pudding pot.
Homeland actress Claire Danes was the recipient of the Hasty Pudding Theatrical Woman of the Year in 2012, with previous winners including Julianne Moore, Anne Hathaway and Halle Berry.
(Pictured above: Claire Danes)
The original award was handed out to stage legend Gertrude Lawrence in 1951.
Harvard will announce its Hasty Pudding Theatrical Man of the Year in the coming weeks. Last year's prize went to The Muppets actor Jason Segel.
(Pictured above: Jason Segel)
Watch a trailer for Marion Cotillard's Rust and Bone below: