Friday's programme will investigate abuse at puppy mills, which special correspondent Lisa Ling describes as "horrific" and "haunting".
Winfrey, who has three other dogs adopted from breeders, was heartbroken when Sophie passed away from kidney failure last month.
She told the Associated Press: "Sophie gave me 13 years of unconditional love. She was a true love in my life."
She added that she would always adopt dogs from an animal shelter after watching Ling's report, saying: "I would never, ever adopt another pet now without going to a shelter to do it. I am a changed woman after seeing this show."