The 34-year-old former Pussycat Doll and judge joined 24-year-old Arthur on stage in a leather skirt, thigh-high boots and a Middlesbrough FC shirt which she rolled up to reveal her navel.
The pair were later mobbed by thousands of fans, who they chatted to and posed for photographs with.
Speaking about his performance, Arthur tweeted: "So excited to walk on stage at Middlesbrough town hall!! Big dream of mine coming true! #HomecomingGig #amazing."
He later added: "Wow that was epic! Thank you SO much for all of your support, Middlesbrough you have made today very special for me x"
Scherzinger also tweeted: "Seeing my boy @JamesArthur23 hometown in Middlesbrough by the Sea, WHO KNEW!?... It could be so stunning here!"
Earlier in the day, Scherzinger visited Arthur's hometown of Saltburn-by-the-Sea on the back of a Harley Davidson, where she spent time at his local pub and the bedsit in which he lived before making the final of the ITV1 show.
Meanwhile, fellow finalist Christopher Maloney performed his homecoming gig at the Liverpool Empire yesterday (December 4) with mentor Gary Barlow and in front of a 1,500 strong crowd.
See pictures from last weekend's live results show here: