The Voice UK singer will play the role of Leigh Bowery, originally played by George, for the upcoming revival of the play in the West End.
Buttery said of his casting: "Leigh Bowery is such an icon to me, so to get the chance to play him is just phenomenal. I just can't wait!"
Taboo is set to run from September to late December at London's Brixton Clubhouse.
The musical was written by Mark Davies with lyrics from Boy George and Kevan Frost. It launched in 2002.
Chat show host Rosie O'Donnell lost her entire $10 million investment after bringing the show to Broadway in 2003. It ran for only 100 performances.
Sam Buttery became the first person to leave The Voice UK during the live stages of the competition back in April.
Boy George said in May that a Culture Club tour is still in the works.