She will be replaced by former Doctor Who series producer Phil Collinson in the second half of next year, just a few months before the show's 50th anniversary celebrations.
Speaking of her decision to stand down, Crowther said: "Coronation Street is very special to me. It's been a huge privilege to work with such a wonderful cast, production and writing team. But after a couple of great years, I'm looking forward to reintroducing myself to my children."
She continued: "I'm delighted to be passing the baton to Phil, and wish him all the best for what should be a spectacular fiftieth year for the show."
Crowther joined Coronation Street in November 2007, succeeding Steve Frost as the soap's showrunner.
Collinson will begin working at Corrie's Manchester home at Granada Studios from March to allow for a substantial handover period, before he officially takes office from late summer. He will work alongside Weatherfield's executive producer Kieran Roberts.
He went on: "Kim will be a tough act to follow but I will be working with one of the best teams in the business and I can’t wait to get stuck in."
Director of ITV Studios John Whiston commented: "We are delighted Phil has agreed to join ITV Studios and carry on the fantastic, creative work that Kim has spearheaded. Phil is a hands-on producer, with a fine track record in shaping much-loved and treasured programming, and I have no doubt he will bring all that talent to Coronation Street.
“I would like to thank Kim for her immense contribution to the show. Kim's sheer hard work and her boundless imagination are the qualities that have continued to keep Coronation Street as fresh and exciting as ever as it enters its 50th year."
He added: "Kim leaves Corrie in fantastically good health, having increased total audience share in the last quarter as recent storylines around Tony, Carla, Maria and Roy Cropper have been delivering spectacularly large audiences day in day out this autumn. This achievement is testament to the skill and talent of Kim and her team."
Earlier this month, EastEnders' executive producer Diederick Santer announced his decision to vacate office, making way for ex-Hollyoaks producer Bryan Kirkwood.